Les classes dirigeantes françaises, confrontées à un peuple jugé trop rétif, ont pris au 19e siècle l’habitude de s’appuyer sur des homologues étrangères, plus puissantes et plus sûres d’elles. Au siècle suivant, elles ont opté tour à tour ou conjointement pour leurs partenaires d’Allemagne et des États-Unis. À l’été 1940, au terme d’une décennie de crise, triompha avec Vichy le tutorat allemand qu’elles avaient mûrement préparé. C’est leur « Collaboration » politico-policière avec le Reich vainqueur, règlement de comptes contre une partie importante de la population, qui est étudiée ici : cette alliance, toujours mortifère, ne se bornait pas à ceux qui occupent en général le devant de la scène, les spécialistes étatiques de la répression, les hommes de main ou les collaborationnistes de plume toujours associés aux crimes. L’attachement durable des classes dirigeantes françaises au tuteur allemand et au tandem Laval-Pétain, qu’elles avaient choisi dès 1934, se prolongea souvent jusqu’à la libération de Paris. Il n’affecta cependant ni l’excellence de leur information ni leur extrême sensibilité au rapport de forces militaires, qui balaya dès l’été 1941, avec la mort du Blitzkrieg à l’Est, leur certitude initiale d’une victoire allemande durable sur le continent européen. Cette réalité dicta leur ralliement à la Pax Americana, du grand capital financier aux chefs militaires et au haut clergé, ralliement aussi spectaculaire qu’ignoré des foules : endosser « les habits neufs de la collaboration » permettrait de maintenir intact le statu quo. L’objectif semblait à portée de main quand les Américains promurent, en débarquant en Afrique du Nord en novembre 1942, leurs protégés Darlan et Giraud. D’ordinaire simple formalité pour le capital financier, la question du pouvoir politique pour l’après- Libération se transforma pourtant en brûlot. De Gaulle n’aimait pas la tutelle américaine plus que l’allemande et n’était pas disposé à céder l’Empire : élites françaises et Américains le détestèrent en chœur bien qu’il n’eût jamais été un modèle de subversion et fût entouré dès l’origine de « gens très bien ». Comme il était soutenu par le peuple français, très au-delà de sa mouvance, décideurs français et américains durent, à contrecœur, s’en accommoder...
Big Business and Hitler
Author: Jacques R. Pauwels
Publisher: James Lorimer & Company
For big business in Germany and around the world, Hitler and his National Socialist party were good news. Business was bad in the 1930s, and for multinational corporations Germany was a bright spot in a world suffering from the Great Depression. As Jacques R. Pauwels explains in this book, corporations were delighted with the profits that came from re-arming Germany, and then supplying both sides of the Second World War. Recent historical research in Germany has laid bare the links between Hitler's regime and big German firms. Scholars have now also documented the role of American firms — General Motors, IBM, Standard Oil, Ford, and many others — whose German subsidiaries eagerly sold equipment, weapons, and fuel needed for the German war machine. A key roadblock to America's late entry into the Second World War was behind-the-scenes pressure from US corporations seeking to protect their profitable business selling to both sides. Basing his work on the recent findings of scholars in many European countries and the US, Pauwels explains how Hitler gained and held the support of powerful business interests who found the well-liked oneparty fascist government, ready and willing to protect the property and profits of big business. He documents the role of the many multinationals in business today who supported Hitler and gained from the Nazi government's horrendous measures.
Undermining the Kremlin
Author: Gregory Mitrovich
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Mitrovich argues that the Cold War policy of containment was only the first step in America's clandestine campaign to destroy Soviet power, revealing a range of previously unknown covert actions launched during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations.
Author: Robert O. Paxton
Uncompromising, often startling, meticulously documented—this book is an account of the government, and the governed, of colaborationist France. Basing his work on captured German archives and contemporary materials rather than on self-serving postwar memoirs or war-trial testimony, Professor Paxton maps out the complex nature of the ill-famed Vichy government, showing that it in fact enjoyed mass participation. The majority of the Frenchmen in 1940 feared social disorder as the worse imaginable evil and rallied to support the State, thereby bringing about the betrayal of the Nation as a whole.
Author: Charles Edward Lindblom, David K. Cohen
Publisher: Yale University Press
The problem that gives rise to this book is dissatisfaction with social science and social research as instruments of social problem solving. Policy makers and other practical problem solvers frequently voice disappointment with what they are offered. And many social scientists and social researchers think they should be more drawn upon, more useful, and more influential. Out of the discontent have come numerous diagnoses and prescriptions. This thoughtful contribution to the discussion provides an agenda of basic questions that should be asked and answered by those who are concerned about the impact of social science and research on real life problems. In general, Cohen and Lindblom believe that social scientists are crippled by a misunderstanding of their own trade, and they suggest that the tools of their trade be applied to the trade itself. Social scientists do not always fully appreciate that professional social inquiry is only one of several ways of solving a problem. They are also often engaged in a mistaken pursuit of authoritativeness, not recognizing that their contribution can never be more than a partial one. Cohen and Lindblom suggest that they reexamine their criteria for selecting subjects for research, study their tactics as compared to those of policy makers, and consider more carefully their role in relation to other routes to problem solving. To stimulate further inquiry into these fundamental issues, they also provide a comprehensive bibliography.
Author: Marc Bloch
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
A renowned historian and Resistance fighter -- later executed by the Nazis -- analyzes at first hand why France fell in 1940.
Preface: the intellectual as object / a 'Selfie'? -- Introduction: the city and the pen -- Intellectuals in the torment of the century -- The Dreyfus affairs: human rights or author's rights? -- From Voltaire to Bourdieu: who are the 'true intellectuals'? -- Marx and his descendants: symbolic capital or political capital? -- The discreet charm of fascism: flirtation or love story? -- Twilight of the idols: the critical intellectual domesticated? -- Islamophobia and the intellectuals' 'rhinoceritis' -- From Houellebecq to Charlie Hebdo: submission or humour? -- From Finkielkraut to Zemmour: decadence or xenophobia?
Author: Robert Soucy
Publisher: Yale University Press
This provocative book aims to demolish the notion that fascism never took place in France. Following on from the acclaimed 'French Fascism - the First Wave', the author continues the argument that France has had a long-standing fascist tradition.
Author: Paul Nizan
Finance and trading, history.
Prize-winning historian Peter Novick illuminates the reasons Americans ignored the Holocaust for so long -- how dwelling on German crimes interfered with Cold War mobilization; how American Jews, not wanting to be thought of as victims, avoided the subject. He explores in absorbing detail the decisions that later moved the Holocaust to the center of American life: Jewish leaders invoking its memory to muster support for Israel and to come out on top in a sordid competition over what group had suffered most; politicians using it to score points with Jewish voters. With insight and sensitivity, Novick raises searching questions about these developments. Have American Jews, by making the Holocaust the emblematic Jewish experience, given Hitler a posthumous victory, tacitly endorsing his definition of Jews as despised pariahs? Does the Holocaust really teach useful lessons and sensitize us to atrocities, or, by making the Holocaust the measure, does it make lesser crimes seem "not so bad"? What are we to make of the fact that while Americans spend hundreds of millions of dollars for museums recording a European crime, there is no museum of American slavery?
The Mighty Wurlitzer
Author: Hugh Wilford
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Wilford provides the first comprehensive account of the clandestine relationship between the CIA and its front organizations. Using an unprecedented wealth of sources, he traces the rise and fall of America's Cold War front network from its origins in the 1940s to its Third World expansion during the 1950s and ultimate collapse in the 1960s.
A re-examination of French industry's relations with the Popular Front government and its Vichy successor.