Dans le domaine de la réalité virtuelle, quelles que soient l'analyse et la réflexion sur le comportement humain, il faut pouvoir les transcrire, grâce aux outils mathématiques et informatiques, en programmes de simulation donnant l'illusion de percevoir et d'interagir avec un être humain. S'il est nécessaire de comprendre les comportements humains en vue de les modéliser, cet ouvrage n'est toutefois pas un livre du domaine des sciences humaines. Il s'adresse avant tout aux spécialistes en informatique et en sciences de l'ingénieur qui doivent travailler en collaboration étroite avec les chercheurs des sciences cognitives pour établir des modélisations réalistes et efficaces. Cet ouvrage fait partie de la troisième édition en 5 volumes plus complète et interdisciplinaire, du traité de la réalité virtuelle. Sous la direction de Philippe Fuchs et la coordination générale de Guillaume Moreau, il est rédigé par 101 auteurs, chercheurs ou professionnels francophones, spécialistes du domaine. Cette troisième édition du traité a déjà été composée de quatre volumes publiés en 2006. Ce cinquième volume " Les humains virtuels ", rédigé en 2008-2009 et coordonnée par Stéphane Donikian, complète cet ouvrage collectif.
Advances in modern sciences occur thanks to within-fields discoveries as well as confrontation of concepts and methods from separated, sometimes distant, domains of knowledge. For instance, the fields of psychology and psychopathology benefited from accumulated contributions from cognitive neurosciences, which, in turn, received insights from molecular chemistry, cellular biology, physics (neuroimaging), statistics and computer sciences (data processing), etc. From the results of these researches, one can argue that among the numerous cognitive phenomena supposedly involved in the emergence the human intelligence and organized behavior, some of them are specific to the social nature of our phylogenetic order. Scientific reductionism allowed to divide the social cognitive system into several components, i.e. emotion processing and regulation, mental state inference (theory of mind), agency, etc. New paradigms were progressively designed to investigate these processes within highly-controlled laboratory settings. Moreover, the related constructs were successful at better understanding psychopathological conditions such as autism and schizophrenia, with partial relationships with illness outcomes. Here, we would like to outline the parallel development of concepts in social neurosciences and in other domains such as computer science, affective computing, virtual reality development, and even hardware technologies. While several researchers in neurosciences pointed out the necessity to consider naturalistic social cognition (Zaki and Ochsner, Ann N Y Acad Sci 1167, 16-30, 2009), the second person perspective (Schilbach et al., Behav Brain Sci 36(4), 393-414, 2013) and reciprocity (de Bruin et al., Front Hum Neurosci 6, 151, 2012), both computer and software developments allowed more and more realistic real-time models of our environment and of virtual humans capable of some interaction with users. As noted at the very beginning of this editorial, a new convergence between scientific disciplines might occur from which it is tricky to predict the outcomes in terms of new concepts, methods and uses. Although this convergence is motivated by the intuition that it fits well ongoing societal changes (increasing social demands on computer technologies, augmenting funding), it comes with several difficulties for which the current Frontiers in’ topic strives to bring some positive answers, and to provide both theoretical arguments and experimental examples. The first issue is about concepts and vocabulary as the contributions described in the following are authored by neuroscientists, computer scientists, psychopathologists, etc. A special attention was given during the reviewing process to stay as close as possible to the publication standards in psychological and health sciences, and to avoid purely technical descriptions. The second problem concerns methods: more complex computerized interaction models results in unpredictable and poorly controlled experiments. In other words, the assets of naturalistic paradigms may be alleviated by the difficulty to match results between subjects, populations, conditions. Of course, this practical question is extremely important for investigating pathologies that are associated with profoundly divergent behavioral patterns. Some of the contributions of this topic provide description of strategies that allowed to solve these difficulties, at least partially. The last issue is about heterogeneity of the objectives of the researches presented here. While selection criteria focused on the use of innovative technologies to assess or improve social cognition, the fields of application of this approach were quite unexpected. In an attempt to organize the contributions, three directions of research can be identified: 1) how innovation in methods might improve understanding and assessment of social cognition disorders or pathology? 2) within the framework of cognitive behavioral psychotherapies (CBT), how should we consider the use of virtual reality or augmented reality? 3) which are the benefits of these techniques for investigating severe mental disorders (schizophrenia or autism) and performing cognitive training? The first challenging question is insightfully raised in the contribution of Timmermans and Schilbach (2014) giving orientations for investigating alterations of social interaction in psychiatric disorders by the use of dual interactive eye tracking with virtual anthropomorphic avatars. Joyal, Jacob and collaborators (2014) bring concurrent and construct validities of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions. The relevance of virtual reality was exemplified with two contributions focusing on anxiety related phenomena. Jackson et al. (2015) describe a new environment allowing to investigate empathy for dynamic FACS-coded facial expressions including pain. Based on a systematic investigation of the impact of social stimuli modalities (visual, auditory), Ruch and collaborators are able to characterize the specificity of the interpretation of laughter in people with gelotophobia (2014). On the issue of social anxiety, Aymerich-Franch et al. (2014) presented two studies in which public speaking anxiety has been correlated with avatars’ similarity of participants’ self-representations. The second issue focuses on how advances in virtual reality may benefit to cognitive and behavioral therapies in psychiatry. These interventions share a common framework that articulates thoughts, feelings or emotions and behaviors and proposes gradual modification of each of these levels thanks to thought and schema analysis, stress reduction procedures, etc. They were observed to be somehow useful for the treatment of depression, stress disorders, phobias, and are gaining some authority in personality disorders and addictions. The main asset of new technologies is the possibility to control the characteristics of symptom-eliciting stimuli/situations, and more precisely the degree to which immersion is enforced. For example, Baus and Bouchard (2014) provide a review on the extension of virtual reality exposure-based therapy toward recently described augmented reality exposure-based therapy in individuals with phobias. Concerning substance dependence disorders, Hone-Blanchet et collaborators (2014) present another review on how virtual reality can be an asset for both therapy and craving assessment stressing out the possibilities to simulate social interactions associated with drug seeking behaviors and even peers’ pressure to consume. The last issue this Frontiers’ topic deals with encompasses the questions raised by social cognitive training or remediation in severe and chronic mental disorders (autistic disorders, schizophrenia). Here, therapies are based on drill and practice or strategy shaping procedures, and, most of the time, share an errorless learning of repeated cognitive challenges. Computerized methods were early proposed for that they do, effortlessly and with limited costs, repetitive stimulations. While, repetition was incompatible with realism in the social cognitive domain, recent advances provide both immersion and full control over stimuli. Georgescu and al. (2014) exhaustively reviews the use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism (HFA). Grynszpan and Nadel (2015) present an original eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gaze patterns and pragmatic abilities again in HFA. About schizophrenia, Oker and collaborators (2015) discuss and report some insights on how an affective and reactive virtual agents might be useful to assess and remediate several defects of social cognitive disorders. About assessment within virtual avatars on schizophrenia, Park et al., (2014) focused on effect of perceived intimacy on social decision making with schizophrenia patients. Regarding schizophrenia remediation, Peyroux and Franck (2014) presented a new method named RC2S which is a cognitive remediation program to improve social cognition in schizophrenia and related disorders. To conclude briefly, while it is largely acknowledged that social interaction can be studied as a topic of its own, all the contributions demonstrate the added value of expressive virtual agents and affective computing techniques for the experimentation. It also appears that the use of virtual reality is at the very beginning of a new scientific endeavor in cognitive sciences and medicine.
A manual for both designers and users, comprehensively presenting the current state of experts' knowledge on virtual reality (VR) in computer science, mechanics, optics, acoustics, physiology, psychology, ergonomics, ethics, and related area. Designed as a reference book and design guide to help the reader develop a VR project, it presents the reader with the importance of the user’s needs and various aspects of the human computer interface (HCI). It further treats technical aspects of VR, hardware and software implementations, and details on the sensory and psycho-sensory interfaces. Providing various concepts and technologies, including mathematics and modelling techniques, it allows the reader to formalize, conceptualize and construct a virtual reality project from original thought to application. This book is intended for engineers, computer scientists and computer game developers working on various VR applications. It can further serve as an educational tool in Virtual Reality courses for senior graduate and postgraduate students.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Haptic Sensing and Touch Enabled Computer Applications, EuroHaptics 2008, held in Madrid, Spain, in June 2008. The 119 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 150 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on control and technology, haptic perception and psychophysics, haptic devices, haptics rendering and display, multimodal interaction and telepresence, as well as haptic applications.
Estimating and Choosing
Author: Georges Matheron
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Ever since the beginning of modern probability theory in the seventeenth century there has been a continuous debate over the meaning and applicability of the concept of probability. This book presents a coherent and well thoughtout framework for the use of probabilistic models to describe unique phenomena in a purely objective way. Although Estimating and Choosing was written with geostatistical applications in mind, the approach is of general applicability across the whole spectrum of probabilistic modelling. The only full-fledged treatment of the foundations of practical probability modelling ever written, this book fills an important gap in the literature of probability and statistics.
Augmented Reality (AR) refers to the merging of a live view of the physical, real world with context-sensitive, computer-generated images to create a mixed reality. Through this augmented vision, a user can digitally interact with and adjust information about their surrounding environment on-the-fly. Handbook of Augmented Reality provides an extensive overview of the current and future trends in Augmented Reality, and chronicles the dramatic growth in this field. The book includes contributions from world expert s in the field of AR from academia, research laboratories and private industry. Case studies and examples throughout the handbook help introduce the basic concepts of AR, as well as outline the Computer Vision and Multimedia techniques most commonly used today. The book is intended for a wide variety of readers including academicians, designers, developers, educators, engineers, practitioners, researchers, and graduate students. This book can also be beneficial for business managers, entrepreneurs, and investors.
Virtual worlds are increasingly incorporated into modern universities and teaching pedagogy. Over 190 higher education institutions world-wide have done teaching in the virtual world of Second Life (SL). This book is based on the first Scandinavian project to experiment with the design and testing of teaching platforms for life long learning in SL. In 2007 it created a virtual island or "sim" in SL called "Kamimo Education Island". The project generated a number of courses taught in Second Life, and instructed educators in the use of SL. This book disseminates the experiences and lessons learned in that project and from other educational projects in SL. The book identifies the gaps in traditional forms of education. It provides a roadmap on issues of: instructional design, learner modelling, building simulations, exploring alternatives to design and integrating tools in education with other learning systems.
Cet ouvrage (en 2 volumes) constitue la seconde édition étendue et mise à jour du précédent traité de la réalité virtuelle paru en décembre 2000. Sous la direction de Philippe Fuchs et la coordination de Guillaume Moreau, il est rédigé par dix-huit chercheurs français, spécialistes de la réalité virtuelle. Ce premier volume " Fondements et Interfaces Comportementales " expose les aspects théoriques et l'interfaçage de l'homme dans un environnement virtuel. Plus précisément et en premier lieu, il propose une définition du champ de la réalité virtuelle. Une démarche multidisciplinaire est présentée, posant les questions psychologiques, ergonomiques, neurophysiologiques, physiques et informatiques de l'homme dans un monde virtuel. La problématique de l'interfaçage comportemental est ensuite abordée. Toutes les interfaces motrices, sensorielles et sensorimotrices sont décrites en expliquant leur principe et leurs caractéristiques techniques. Une analyse détaillée des techniques d'immersion, d'interaction et des primitives comportementales virtuelles est présentée. Une dernière partie aborde les questions éthiques, juridiques et les effets sur l'homme. Dans le second volume " Création des environnements virtuels & applications " le lecteur trouvera la description des techniques informatiques pour la création des environnements virtuels et un exposé des applications professionnelles de la réalité virtuelle.
Designing Autonomous Agents provides a summary and overview of the radically different architectures that have been developed over the past few years for organizing robots. These architectures have led to major breakthroughs that promise to revolutionize the study of autonomous agents and perhaps artificial intelligence in general.The new architectures emphasize more direct coupling of sensing to action, distributedness and decentralization, dynamic interaction with the environment, and intrinsic mechanisms to cope with limited resources and incomplete knowledge. The research discussed here encompasses such important ideas as emergent functionality, task-level decomposition, and reasoning methods such as analogical representations and visual operations that make the task of perception more realistic.Pattie Maes is Research Associate at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the University of Brussels and Visiting Faculty Member at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT.Contents: A Biological Perspective on Autonomous Agent Design, Randall D. Beer, Hillel J. Chiel, Leon S. Sterling. Elephants Don't Play Chess, Rodney A. Brooks. What Are Plans For? Philip E. Agre and David Chapman. Action and Planning in Embedded Agents, Leslie Pack Kaelbling and Stanley J. Rosenschein. Situated Agents Can Have Goals, Pattie Maes. Exploiting Analogical Representations, Luc Steels. Internalized Plans: A Representation for Action Resources, David W. Payton. Integrating Behavioral, Perceptual, and World Knowledge in Reactive Navigation, Ronald C. Arkin. Symbol Grounding via a Hybrid Architecture in an Autonomous Assembly System, Chris Malcolm and Tim Smithers. Animal Behavior as a Paradigm for Developing Robot Autonomy, Tracy L. Anderson and Max Donath.
The VR Book
Author: Jason Jerald
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool
Virtual reality (VR) potentially provides our minds with direct access to digital media in a way that at first seems to have no limits.However, creating compelling VR experiences is an incredibly complex challenge.When VR is done well, the results are brilliant and pleasurable experiences that go beyond what we can do in the real world.When VR is done badly, not only is the system frustrating to use, but sickness can result.Reasons for bad VR are numerous; some failures come from the limitations of technology, but many come from a lack of understanding perception, interaction, design principles, and real users. This book discusses such issues, focusing upon the human element of VR rather than technical implementation, for if we do not get the human element correct, then no amount of technology will make VR anything more than an interesting tool confined to research laboratories. Even when VR principles are fully understood, first implementations are rarely novel and never ideal due to the complex nature of VR and the countless possibilities. However, the VR principles discussed within enable us to intelligently experiment with the rules and iteratively design towards innovative experiences.
The purpose of virtual reality is to make possible a sensorimotor and cognitive activity for a user in a digitally created artificial world. Recent advances in computer technology have led to a new generation of VR devices such as VR headsets. Accordingly, virtual reality poses many new scientific challenges for researchers and professionals. The aim of this book, a manual meant for both designers and users of virtual reality, is to present the current state of knowledge on the use of VR headsets in the most complete way possible. The book is divided into 13 chapters. The objective of the first chapter is to give an introduction to VR and clarify its scope. The next chapter presents a theoretical approach to virtual reality through our Immersion and Interaction methodology also known as "3I2 model’’. Then, a chapter about human senses is necessary to understand the sensorimotor immersion, especially vision. These chapters are followed by several chapters which present the different visual interfaces and the VR headsets currently available on the market. These devices can impart comfort and health problems due to sensorimotor discrepancies. A chapter is devoted to these problems, followed by a chapter that gives a detailed discussion of methods and 32 solutions to dispel, or at least to decrease, VR sickness. The following three chapters present different VR applications that use VR headsets (behavioural sciences, industrial uses and Digital Art) and the final chapter provides conclusions and discusses future VR challenges.
Author: Greg Kipper, Joseph Rampolla
With the explosive growth in mobile phone usage and rapid rise in search engine technologies over the last decade, augmented reality (AR) is poised to be one of this decade's most disruptive technologies, as the information that is constantly flowing around us is brought into view, in real-time, through augmented reality. In this cutting-edge book, the authors outline and discuss never-before-published information about augmented reality and its capabilities. With coverage of mobile, desktop, developers, security, challenges, and gaming, this book gives you a comprehensive understanding of what augmented reality is, what it can do, what is in store for the future and most importantly: how to benefit from using AR in our lives and careers. Educates readers how best to use augmented reality regardless of industry Provides an in-depth understanding of AR and ideas ranging from new business applications to new crime fighting methods Includes actual examples and case studies from both private and government application
Ces créatures d’images polymorphes que sont les avatars jouables nous font exister dans les mondes numériques des jeux vidéo, et même dans certains sites Web communautaires ou ludiques. Parce qu’elles nous y métamorphosent, elles apparaissent emblématiques des pratiques interactives les plus sophistiquées et troublantes. Toutefois, leurs propriétés et effets, espérés ou redoutés, restent encore à éclairer, ainsi que toutes ces interactions à distance réalisées par avatars interposés, au cœur des simulations audiovisuelles informatiques contemporaines. Ancré en sciences de l’information et de la communication, ce premier ouvrage collectif francophone sur le thème conceptualise l’avatar. Aussi, il bénéficie des apports conjugués de différentes disciplines (philosophie des techniques, psychologie, psychanalyse, sémiologie, ethnologie, sociologie, sciences de la gestion, arts). Par cette pluralité et grâce à de constants allers-retours entre théories et terrains, descriptions et analyses, hypothèses et témoignages, peuvent être articulées toutes les dimensions en jeu : technologiques, physiologiques, interpersonnelles, identitaires, intimes et/ou culturelles.