La libertÃ© des acteurs est un fait ; l'existence de systÃ¨mes organisÃ©s et cohÃ©rents en est un autre. Comment ces deux rÃ©alitÃ©s s'articulent-elles ? Michel Crozier, l'auteur du PhÃ©nomÃ¨ne bureaucratique, associÃ© Ã Erhard Friedberg, montre, contre tous les mirages d'une rationalitÃ© totalitaire, le caractÃ¨re essentiellement " opportuniste " des stratÃ©gies humaines et la part irrÃ©ductible de libertÃ© qui existe dans toute relation de pouvoir. Ce livre n'est pas un manuel de sociologie des organisations - discipline dont Michel Crozier est l'un des fondateurs en France - mais bien une sociologie de l'action organisÃ©e. Il constitue une vÃ©ritable critique de la raison collective.
In The Pension Fund Revolution, originally published nearly two decades ago under the title The Unseen Revolution, Drucker reports that institutional investors, especially pension funds, have become the controlling owners of America's large companies, the country's only capitalists. He maintains that the shift began in 1952 with the establishment of the first modern pension fund by General Motors. By 1960 it had become so obvious that a group of young men decided to found a stock-exchange firm catering exclusively to these new investors. Ten years later this firm (Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette) became the most successful, and one of the biggest, Wall Street firms. Drucker's argument, that through pension funds ownership of the means of production had become socialized without becoming nationalized, was unacceptable to the conventional wisdom of the country in the 1970s. Even less acceptable was the second theme of the book: the aging of America. Among the predictions made by Drucker in The Pension Fund Revolution are: that a major health care issue would be longevity; that pensions and social security would be central to American economy and society; that the retirement age would have to be extended; and that altogether American politics would increasingly be dominated by middle-class issues and the values of elderly people. While readers of the original edition found these conclusions hard to accept, Drucker's work has proven to be prescient. In the new epilogue, Drucker discusses how the increasing dominance of pension funds represents one of the most startling power shifts in economic history, and he examines their present-day Impact. The Pension Fund Revolution is now considered a classic text regarding the effects of pension fund ownership on the governance of the American corporation and on the structure of the American economy altogether. The reissuing of this book is more timely now than ever. It provides a wealth of information for sociologists, economists, and political theorists.
Cent fiches de lecture
Author: Marc MontoussÃ©
Publisher: Editions BrÃ©al
1oo fiches de lecture est l'ouvrage de rÃ©fÃ©rence qui permet d'accÃ©der Ã la " substantifique moelle " des Åuvres majeures en Ã©conomie, sociologie, histoire et gÃ©ographie Ã©conomiques. Il s'adresse en prioritÃ© aux Ã©tudiants en classes prÃ©paratoires Ã©conomiques et commerciales, en IEP et Ã l'universitÃ© qui ne peuvent, faute de temps, lire tous les ouvrages utiles pour maÃ®triser le programme, ou veulent se les remettre en mÃ©moire Ã l'approche des examens et concours. Ces fiches sont classÃ©es par thÃ¨mes et Ã©maillÃ©es de nombreuses citations. AprÃ¨s avoir replacÃ© les Åuvres dans leur contexte, elles en restituent de faÃ§on structurÃ©e les idÃ©es essentielles, puis en prÃ©cisent la portÃ©e. Ãtudiants, mais aussi passionnÃ©s et curieux pourront enfin disposer d'une synthÃ¨se des Åuvres fondamentales.
Cet ouvrage montre que, contrairement Ã l'idÃ©e d'une division de l'Afrique Ã partir des identitÃ©s francophones et anglophones ou Ã partir d'une partition entre adversaires et partisans d'une intÃ©gration immÃ©diate ou par Ã©tapes, l'absence de cohÃ©sion observÃ©e au sein de l'Union africaine a pour source les comportements stratÃ©giques adoptÃ©s par certains Etats, pourtant engagÃ©s officiellement dans une action collective.
Governing the Commons
Author: Elinor Ostrom
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Tackles one of the most enduring and contentious issues of positive political economy: common pool resource management.
The Crisis of Democracy
Author: Michel Crozier, Samuel P. Huntington, JÅji Watanuki, Trilateral Commission
Publisher: [New York] : New York University Press
Not This Time
Author: Marcel Martel
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Drugs are part of every society, consumed for ritual or religious purposes, for pleasure, to enhance athletic performance, or as a means to relieve pain. Throughout the twentieth century, however, an arbitrary and shifting distinction was made between legal drugs that were prescribed and administered by the medical profession, and illegal drugs that were subject to state control and suppression. Illegal in Canada since 1923, marijuana is the most controversial of illegal drugs. Because it lacks the same addictive and harmful qualities of other illegal substances, such as heroin and cocaine, marijuana's negative social impact is questionable. In the 1960s interest groups â including university student associations, certain physicians, and others â began demanding changes to the Narcotics Control Act, which governed the legal status of drugs, to decriminalize or legalize the possession of marijuana. In Not This Time, Marcel Martel explores recreational use of marijuana in the 1960s and its emergence as a topic of social debate. He demonstrates how the media, interest groups, state institutions, bureaucrats and politicians influenced the development and implementation of public policy on drugs. Martel illustrates how two loose coalitions both made up of interest groups, addiction research organizations and bureaucrats â one supporting the existing drug legislation, and the other favoring liberalization of the Narcotics Control Act â dominated the debate over the legalization of marijuana, and how those favoring liberalized drug laws, while influential, had difficulty presenting a unified front and problems justifying their cause while the health benefits of marijuana use were still in question. Exploring both sides of the debate, Martel presents the invigorating history of a question that continues to reverberate in the minds of Canadians. Electronic Format Disclaimer: Images removed at the request of the rights holder.
Author: Howard Saul Becker
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Argues that art works are not the creation of isolated individuals but result from cooperation between different artists, suppliers of materials, art distributors, critics, and audiences, who together make up the art world.
Critique of Modernity
Author: Alain Touraine
For over two hundred years, the notion of modernity has dominated Western social thought. Yet as we approach the end of the millenium, we find the concept under seige: constantly being challenged, rejected or refined. In Critique of Modernity d, Alain Touraine, one of our leading social thinkers, offers an outstanding analysis and reinterpretation of the modern for the twenty-first century.
Obedience to Authority
Author: Stanley Milgram
THE INSPIRATION FOR THE MAJOR MOTION PICTURE THE EXPERIMENTER âThe classic account of the human tendency to follow orders, no matter who they hurt or what their consequences.â â Michael Dirda, Washington Post Book World In the 1960s Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram famously carried out a series of experiments that forever changed our perceptions of morality and free will. The subjectsâor âteachersââwere instructed to administer electroshocks to a human âlearner,â with the shocks becoming progressively more powerful and painful. Controversial but now strongly vindicated by the scientific community, these experiments attempted to determine to what extent people will obey orders from authority figures regardless of consequences. âMilgramâs experiments on obedience have made us more aware of the dangers of uncritically accepting authority,â wrote Peter Singer in the New York Times Book Review. Featuring a new introduction from Dr. Philip Zimbardo, who conducted the famous Stanford Prison Experiment, Obedience to Authority is Milgramâs fascinating and troubling chronicle of his classic study and a vivid and persuasive explanation of his conclusions.
School improvement, like motherhood, has many advocates. Everyone is for it, without having to campaign actively on its behalf. And just as the 100% of people who have had mothers think they know how mothering could be done better, so the (nearly) 100% of people who have been pupils in schools, or have even taught in or managed them, think they know how schools can be im proved. More precisely, they are sure that schools ought to be improved. The trouble is that they propose a staggering, conflicting range of methods of improving the schools, from ;'back to the woodshed" to teacher merit pay, a stiffer curriculum, a stronger tax base, reorganization, a more humane climate, "teacher-proof" innovations, community involvement-the list is nearly end less. Furthermore, the issues are not merely technical, but normative and po litical. The term improvement is itself problematic. One person's version of improvement is another's version of wastefulness or even of worsening the schools. Furthermore, the versions that win out in any particular school are not Improvement sometimes turns out to be merely a necessarily technically "best. " code word for the directives that administrators have successfully put into place, or for the agreements that teachers have lobbied into being. How much do we really know about school improvement? The available research literature is quite substantial, but not as helpful as it might be.
Author: James G. March, Herbert A. Simon
This book provides the original and definitive treatments of such fundamental concepts as bounded rationality, attention focus, and problem solving.
First Published in 2017. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an Informa company.