Avant le milieu du XXe siècle, les communautés juives du Maroc étaient fortes de 250 000 âmes coexistant avec dix millions de musulmans. Aujourd’hui, elles comptent moins de 3000 personnes. L’auteur remet en perspective leur présence plus que bimillénaire dans le pays. Rappelant qu’elles formaient la première communauté juive du monde arabe, Mohammed Kenbib souligne leur contribution à l’histoire du Maroc, à sa culture, son patrimoine, son économie, ses échanges maritimes et sa diplomatie. Il s’attache notamment à étudier la diversité des fondements de leurs relations avec les autres populations, quels qu’en aient été les aléas et les turbulences. En outre, il analyse les bouleversements provoqués par la présence européenne, le protectorat, la Deuxième Guerre mondiale – principalement la Shoah – et le conflit du Moyen-Orient. Il évoque aussi les juifs du Maroc d’aujourd’hui, ainsi que les liens que gardent avec ce pays près d’un million de leurs coreligionnaires d’origine marocaine vivant pour la plupart en Israël, en France, au Canada et ailleurs dans le monde. Enfin, en 2011, cas unique dans le monde arabo-musulman, une référence explicite à l’« affluent hébraïque » de la culture marocaine figure dans le Préambule de la nouvelle Constitution du royaume.
This is the first encyclopedic guide to the history of relations between Jews and Muslims around the world from the birth of Islam to today. Richly illustrated and beautifully produced, the book features more than 150 authoritative and accessible articles by an international team of leading experts in history, politics, literature, anthropology, and philosophy. Organized thematically and chronologically, this indispensable reference provides critical facts and balanced context for greater historical understanding and a more informed dialogue between Jews and Muslims. Part I covers the medieval period; Part II, the early modern period through the nineteenth century, in the Ottoman Empire, Africa, Asia, and Europe; Part III, the twentieth century, including the exile of Jews from the Muslim world, Jews and Muslims in Israel, and Jewish-Muslim politics; and Part IV, intersections between Jewish and Muslim origins, philosophy, scholarship, art, ritual, and beliefs. The main articles address major topics such as the Jews of Arabia at the origin of Islam; special profiles cover important individuals and places; and excerpts from primary sources provide contemporary views on historical events. Contributors include Mark R. Cohen, Alain Dieckhoff, Michael Laskier, Vera Moreen, Gordon D. Newby, Marina Rustow, Daniel Schroeter, Kirsten Schulze, Mark Tessler, John Tolan, Gilles Veinstein, and many more. Covers the history of relations between Jews and Muslims around the world from the birth of Islam to today Written by an international team of leading scholars Features in-depth articles on social, political, and cultural history Includes profiles of important people (Eliyahu Capsali, Joseph Nasi, Mohammed V, Martin Buber, Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin, Edward Said, Messali Hadj, Mahmoud Darwish) and places (Jerusalem, Alexandria, Baghdad) Presents passages from essential documents of each historical period, such as the Cairo Geniza, Al-Sira, and Judeo-Persian illuminated manuscripts Richly illustrated with more than 250 images, including maps and color photographs Includes extensive cross-references, bibliographies, and an index
Tracing the emergence of 'Religious Internationals' as a distinctive new phenomenon in world history, this book transforms our understanding of the role of religion in our modern world. Through in-depth studies comparing the experiences of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Jews and Muslims, leading experts shed new light on 'global civil society'.
This multicultural reference work on Jewish folklore, legends, customs, and other elements of folklife is the first of its kind.
A Mediterranean Society
Author: S. D. Goitein
Publisher: Univ of California Press
"One of the best comprehensive histories of a culture in this century."--Amos Funkenstein, Stanford University
Muslims and Jews in France
Author: Maud S. Mandel
Publisher: Princeton University Press
This book traces the global, national, and local origins of the conflict between Muslims and Jews in France, challenging the belief that rising anti-Semitism in France is rooted solely in the unfolding crisis in Israel and Palestine. Maud Mandel shows how the conflict in fact emerged from processes internal to French society itself even as it was shaped by affairs elsewhere, particularly in North Africa during the era of decolonization. Mandel examines moments in which conflicts between Muslims and Jews became a matter of concern to French police, the media, and an array of self-appointed spokesmen from both communities: Israel's War of Independence in 1948, France's decolonization of North Africa, the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, the 1968 student riots, and François Mitterrand's experiments with multiculturalism in the 1980s. She takes an in-depth, on-the-ground look at interethnic relations in Marseille, which is home to the country's largest Muslim and Jewish populations outside of Paris. She reveals how Muslims and Jews in France have related to each other in diverse ways throughout this history--as former residents of French North Africa, as immigrants competing for limited resources, as employers and employees, as victims of racist aggression, as religious minorities in a secularizing state, and as French citizens. In Muslims and Jews in France, Mandel traces the way these multiple, complex interactions have been overshadowed and obscured by a reductionist narrative of Muslim-Jewish polarization.
The Story of the Jews
Author: Simon Schama
Publisher: Harper Collins
In this magnificently illustrated cultural history—the tie-in to the pbs and bbc series The Story of the Jews—simon schama details the story of the jewish people, tracing their experience across three millennia, from their beginnings as an ancient tribal people to the opening of the new world in 1492 It is a story like no other: an epic of endurance in the face of destruction, of creativity in the face of oppression, joy amidst grief, the affirmation of life despite the steepest of odds. It spans the millennia and the continents—from India to Andalusia and from the bazaars of Cairo to the streets of Oxford. It takes you to unimagined places: to a Jewish kingdom in the mountains of southern Arabia; a Syrian synagogue glowing with radiant wall paintings; the palm groves of the Jewish dead in the Roman catacombs. And its voices ring loud and clear, from the severities and ecstasies of the Bible writers to the love poems of wine bibbers in a garden in Muslim Spain. In The Story of the Jews, the Talmud burns in the streets of Paris, massed gibbets hang over the streets of medieval London, a Majorcan illuminator redraws the world; candles are lit, chants are sung, mules are packed, ships loaded with gems and spices founder at sea. And a great story unfolds. Not—as often imagined—of a culture apart, but of a Jewish world immersed in and imprinted by the peoples among whom they have dwelled, from the Egyptians to the Greeks, from the Arabs to the Christians. Which makes the story of the Jews everyone's story, too.
From sending imams abroad to financing mosques and Islamic associations, home states play a key role in governing Islam in Western Europe. Drawing on over one hundred interviews and years of fieldwork, this book employs a comparative perspective that analyzes the foreign religious activities of the two home states with the largest diaspora populations in Europe: Turkey and Morocco. The research shows how these states use religion to promote ties with their citizens and their descendants abroad while also seeking to maintain control over the forms of Islam that develop within the diaspora. The author identifies and explains the internal and foreign political interests that have motivated state actors on both sides of the Mediterranean, ultimately arguing that interstate cooperation in religious affairs has and will continue to have a structural influence on the evolution of Islam in Western Europe.
The origins of the Jewish community of Morocco are buried in history, but they date back to ancient times, and perhaps to the biblical period. The first Jews in the country migrated there from Israel. Over the centuries, their numbers were increased by converts and then by Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal. After the Muslim conquest, Morocco's Jews, as "people of the book," had dhimmi status, which entailed many restrictions but allowed them to exercise their religion freely. In the mellahs (Jewish quarters) of Morocco's cities and towns, and in the mountainous rural areas, a distinct Jewish culture developed and thrived, unquestionably traditional and Orthodox, yet unique because of the many areas in which it assimilated elements of the local culture and lifestyle, making them its own as it did so. Most of Morocco's Jews settled in Israel after 1948, and many others went to other countries. Wherever they went, their rich cultural heritage went with them, as exemplified by the Maimuna festival, just after Passover, which is now a major occasion on the Israeli calender.
Les Fous de la République
Author: Pierre Birnbaum
Publisher: Stanford University Press
This book provides a highly original account of the Franco-Jewish political and administrative elite--generals, politicians, judges, magistrates, and prefects--from the final decades of the nineteenth century to the Vichy regime. United by an extensive network of family relations and a fierce devotion to secular republicanism, these Jews of State (the author’s term to distinguish them from their predecessors, court Jews, who were more oriented toward the world of business and banking) formed a group that perpetuated itself over three generations. The book dissolves the supposedly marked dichotomy between assimilated and unassimilated Jews in French society by showing how this Franco-Jewish elite was simultaneously active at the highest levels of French professional and administrative life and deeply involved in Jewish cultural life.
Judaism Viewed from Within and from Without presents three themes. The first applies anthropological analyses to classic textual material in Judaism, the second presents studies of different expressions of Jewish life in America, while the third portrays varieties of Judaism among different cultural groups in contemporary Israel.
Under Crescent and Cross
Author: Mark R. Cohen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Did Muslims and Jews in the Middle Ages cohabit in a peaceful "interfaith utopia?" Or were Jews under Muslim rule persecuted, much as they were in Christian lands? Rejecting both polemically charged "myths," Mark Cohen offers a systematic comparison of Jewish life in medieval Islam and Christendom--the first in-depth explanation of why medieval Islamic-Jewish relations, though not utopic, were less confrontational and violent than those between Christians and Jews in the West.