An Economic History of Europe provides students with a comprehensive introduction to European economic history from the fifteenth century to the present day. Individual chapters offer brief references to previous historical periods and events, with special attention given to core themes concerning economic development, and an analysis of their change through time and space. Core themes examined in each period include: the increasing prominence of industry international trade demand and supply dynamics agriculture. The unique structure of this text enables students not only to gain a firm grounding in the long-term evolution of the European economy, but also provides an historical overview of the economic development of individual countries. Individual contributors analyze the shift from the modern to the contemporary period and offer a broad explanation of the historical roots of the problems that face today's economic development. This key text is indispensable reading for students in economics, economic history, development economics and history.
This Oxford Handbook provides a fresh overall view and interpretation of the modern economic growth of one of the largest European countries, whose economic history is less known internationally than that of other comparably large and successful economies. It will provide, for the first time, a comprehensive, quantitative "new economic history" of Italy. The handbook offers an interpretation of the main successes and failures of the Italian economy at a macro level, the research--conducted by a large international team of scholars --contains entirely new quantitative results and interpretations, spanning the entire 150-year period since the unification of Italy, on a large number of issues. By providing a comprehensive view of the successes and failures of Italian firms, workers, and policy makers in responding to the challenges of the international business cycle, the book crucially shapes relevant questions on the reasons for the current unsatisfactory response of the Italian economy to the ongoing "second globalization." Most chapters of the handbook are co-authored by both an Italian and a foreign scholar.
Vera Zamagni provides a new economic history of Europe from the birth of industrialization through to the financial crisis of 2007/08 and its aftermath. The remarkable story of European economic growth is set within the wider context of world economic progress and alongside developments in Asia, Eastern Europe and the United States to provide an up-to-date survey suitable for course use. The book begins by outlining the economic landscape of the late middle ages before exploring the process of European industrialization that began with Europe's first industrial nation, Britain. How the British model (particularly the role of the State within it) was replicated throughout Europe is examined. The reasons for the relative decline of the UK and the rise of the US and Japanese economies towards the end of the nineteenth century and the birth of global finance are explored. The economic impact of world war and revolution is assessed and the first global economic crisis investigated before Europe was plunged into war again. European reconstruction and integration is analyzed alongside the decline of Russia and the rise of the Asian economies. The book ends with an assessment of the impact of the global crash of 2007/08 and the subsequent crisis of the Eurozone. Throughout, the book reveals how the peculiarities of European civilization - its social and economic institutions and its values - triggered economic progress. That these same structures are now under threat makes Zamagni's history particularly pertinent.
Farm to Factory
Author: Robert C. Allen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
To say that history's greatest economic experiment--Soviet communism--was also its greatest economic failure is to say what many consider obvious. Here, in a startling reinterpretation, Robert Allen argues that the USSR was one of the most successful developing economies of the twentieth century. He reaches this provocative conclusion by recalculating national consumption and using economic, demographic, and computer simulation models to address the "what if" questions central to Soviet history. Moreover, by comparing Soviet performance not only with advanced but with less developed countries, he provides a meaningful context for its evaluation. Although the Russian economy began to develop in the late nineteenth century based on wheat exports, modern economic growth proved elusive. But growth was rapid from 1928 to the 1970s--due to successful Five Year Plans. Notwithstanding the horrors of Stalinism, the building of heavy industry accelerated growth during the 1930s and raised living standards, especially for the many peasants who moved to cities. A sudden drop in fertility due to the education of women and their employment outside the home also facilitated growth. While highlighting the previously underemphasized achievements of Soviet planning, Farm to Factory also shows, through methodical analysis set in fluid prose, that Stalin's worst excesses--such as the bloody collectivization of agriculture--did little to spur growth. Economic development stagnated after 1970, as vital resources were diverted to the military and as a Soviet leadership lacking in original thought pursued wasteful investments.
The Economic History of Italy 1860-1990 gives a scholarly and authoritative account of Italy's progress from a rural economy to an industrialized nation, covering in detail agriculture, trade, banking, public intervention, the standard of living, and education. It provides an interpretativeaccount of the economic history of Italy since unification and offers an extensive resource of quantitative data. Professor Zamagni argues that Italy only effectively became an industrialized nation after the Second World War, with the south still being clearly behind the rest of the country. Her argument makes use of both macroeconomic approaches, in looking at the growth of income, investment, consumption,trade, and the role of the state, and microeconomic approaches, drawing conclusions from the history of individual banks and corporations. Italy's movement from peripheral status in Europe to a central position as a prosperous country was achieved through a remarkable flexibility in adapting newtechnology and new institutions.
Détente in Cold War Europe
Author: Elena Calandri, Antonio Varsori, Daniele Caviglia
The Mediterranean sea has been a key geopolitical territory in the global international relations of the twentieth century; of crucial importance to the US, the Middle East and in the history of the EU. As Cold War documents become declassified and these archives become accessible to western historians, this volume reassesses the secret war waged over three decades for control of the Mediterranean Sea. An "American lake" in the 1950s, a battlefield for influence in the Cold War of the 1960s, and an increasingly important political arena for the oil-rich Gulf States in the 1970s, the Mediterranean offers a focal point around which the major themes and narratives of Cold War history were constructed. Détente in Cold War Europe draws together detailed analyses of the major moments of post-WWII history through the prism of the Mediterranean - including the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975, the Jordan crisis of 1970, the Soviet role in the Yom Kippur war, the Cyprus emergency of 1974, US-Soviet détente and US-Israeli relations under President Nixon. This book is a vital work for historians of the twentieth century and for those seeking to understand the importance of the Mediterranean in the political history of the Cold War.