Author: Sam Ham
Publisher: Fulcrum Publishing
In the new edition of the international bestseller Environmental Interpretation, Sam H. Ham captures what has changed in our understanding of interpretation during the past two decades. Ham draws on recent advances in communication research to unveil a fresh and invigorating perspective that will lead interpreters to new and insightful pathways for making a difference on purpose through their work.
Author: Sam H. Ham
Publisher: Fulcrum Pub
The long-awaited new edition of the international bestseller Environmental Interpretation, including a wealth of new material.
Environmental Interpretation is the first truly applied treatment of environmental communication written specifically for people with big ideas and small budgets. Drawing on 20 years experience and the successes of his colleagues worldwide, Sam Ham presents an unusually diverse collection of low-cost communication techniques that really work. More than 200 illustrations, photos, and technical insets provide simple instructions for designing and implementing effective education programs in forests, parks, protected areas, zoos, botanical gardens, extension and community programs, and in all kinds of agriculture and natural resource management programs. Aside from its step-by-step, "how-to" approach, what sets this volume apart is its solid theoretical foundation. Readers learn not only how to communicate their ideas more forcefully but why the methods work. Some 20 case studies, carefully selected from throughout the Western Hemisphere, stimulate the imagination and show how others have successfully applied what this book is about. Written for beginners and experts alike, the book represents a valuable resource for anyone faced with the need to communicate about the environment yet constrained by lack of money and experience.
This book presents a comprehensive theory of legal interpretation, by a leading judge and legal theorist. Currently, legal philosophers and jurists apply different theories of interpretation to constitutions, statutes, rules, wills, and contracts. Aharon Barak argues that an alternative approach--purposive interpretation--allows jurists and scholars to approach all legal texts in a similar manner while remaining sensitive to the important differences. Moreover, regardless of whether purposive interpretation amounts to a unifying theory, it would still be superior to other methods of interpretation in tackling each kind of text separately. Barak explains purposive interpretation as follows: All legal interpretation must start by establishing a range of semantic meanings for a given text, from which the legal meaning is then drawn. In purposive interpretation, the text's "purpose" is the criterion for establishing which of the semantic meanings yields the legal meaning. Establishing the ultimate purpose--and thus the legal meaning--depends on the relationship between the subjective and objective purposes; that is, between the original intent of the text's author and the intent of a reasonable author and of the legal system at the time of interpretation. This is easy to establish when the subjective and objective purposes coincide. But when they don't, the relative weight given to each purpose depends on the nature of the text. For example, subjective purpose is given substantial weight in interpreting a will; objective purpose, in interpreting a constitution. Barak develops this theory with masterful scholarship and close attention to its practical application. Throughout, he contrasts his approach with that of textualists and neotextualists such as Antonin Scalia, pragmatists such as Richard Posner, and legal philosophers such as Ronald Dworkin. This book represents a profoundly important contribution to legal scholarship and a major alternative to interpretive approaches advanced by other leading figures in the judicial world.
This book is uplifting and inspiring as it enhances the reader's understanding of how to compellingly interpret our cultural and natural legacy. The 15 guiding principles set forth in this book will assist anyone who works in parks, forests, wildlife refuges, zoos, museums, historic areas, nature centres, and tourism sites to more effectively, and joyously, conduct their work. This book, updated and in its second edition, has been used internationally and has been translated into Chinese. It serves as inspirational reading for students in environmental education, forestry, conservation, history, communications, outdoor recreation, and park management.
Covering everything from the history of interpretation, to strategies and tools for effective communication, to the future of the profession, this reference guide is a vital resource for guides and interpreters in natural resource management programs. Includes tips on traditional campfire programs, high-tech audiovisual presentations, presenting to special groups and much more.
Author: Barbara Abramoff Levy, Sandra Mackenzie Lloyd, Susan Porter Schreiber
Publisher: Rowman Altamira
This open and engaging book will help you develop thematic tours and train your guides to lead those tours, while aiding you in managing your guide program effectively. The authors' unique approach includes clear step-by-step instructions supplemented with activities and readings.
Author: Steve McIntosh
Does the science of evolution really prove that life, humanity, and the universe as a whole are meaningless accidents? On the contrary, as science has increasingly shown how everything in the universe is subject to evolution—including matter, life, and human culture—these very facts reveal that the process of evolution is unmistakably progressive. As we come to see how evolution has progressed throughout our cosmology, biology, and human culture, this reveals evolution’s purpose—to grow toward ever-widening realizations of beauty, truth, and goodness. McIntosh argues that the purpose of evolution is not "intelligently designed" or otherwise externally controlled; rather, its purpose is being creatively and originally discerned through the choices of evolutionary creatures themselves. Without relying on any spiritual authorities, the author shows how the scientific story of our origins is actually a profound and sacred teaching compatible with many forms of contemporary spirituality. In EVOLUTION’S PURPOSE, McIntosh discusses: * Science’s growing recognition of the phenomenon of emergence, which ties together all forms of evolution * Why traditional philosophies no longer adequately explain the fullness of evolution * Why the idea that evolution is accidental or meaningless is just as mythical as the idea that the world was created in six days * Why growth toward beauty, truth, and goodness harmonizes with scientific truth * Reconciling evolution’s purpose with the presence of evil and suffering in the world Taking us from pre-biotic forms of life right up through the development of human consciousness and our global civilization, McIntosh presents a fresh and compelling view of evolutionary science and philosophy that will inspire a deeper understanding of evolution itself and show how it can lead directly to a more evolved world.
Meaningful Interpretation captures the essential philosophy and best practices of the National Park Service Interpretive Development Program (IDP). The IDP was created by hundrends of field interpreters through a series of workshops and training courses, and defines professional standards for National Park Service interpretation through a national benchmark curriculum."--pub. desc.
Interpreting Our Heritage
Author: Freeman Tilden
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Every year millions of Americans visit national parks and monuments, state and municipal parks, battlefields, historic houses, and museums. By means of guided walks and talks, tours, exhibits, and signs, visitors experience these areas through a very special kind of communication technique known as "interpretation." For fifty years, Freeman Tilden's Interpreting Our Heritage has been an indispensable sourcebook for those who are responsible for developing and delivering interpretive programs. This expanded and revised anniversary edition includes not only Tilden's classic work but also an entirely new selection of accompanying photographs, five additional essays by Tilden on the art and craft of interpretation, a new foreword by former National Park Service director Russell Dickenson, and an introduction by R. Bruce Craig that puts Tilden's writings into perspective for present and future generations. Whether the challenge is to make a prehistoric site come to life; to explain the geological basis behind a particular rock formation; to touch the hearts and minds of visitors to battlefields, historic homes, and sites; or to teach a child about the wonders of the natural world, Tilden's book, with its explanation of the famed "six principles" of interpretation, provides a guiding hand. For anyone interested in our natural and historic heritage--park volunteers and rangers, museum docents and educators, new and seasoned professional heritage interpreters, and those lovingly characterized by Tilden as "happy amateurs--Interpreting Our Heritage and Tilden's later interpretive writings, included in this edition, collectively provide the essential foundation for bringing into focus the truths that lie beyond what the eye sees.
An updating of National Park Service interpretive training manuals, this book covers basic principles of interpretation -- the interface between the park and those who visit it -- and specific applications of those principles. It includes talks and demonstrations, walks, canoeing, and auto caravans, plus winter activities.
Challenging the classic narrative that sovereign states make the law that constrains them, this book argues that treaties and other sources of international law form only the starting point of legal authority. Interpretation can shift the meaning of texts and, in its own way, make law. In the practice of interpretation actors debate the meaning of the written and customary laws, and so contribute to the making of new law. In such cases it is the actor's semantic authority that is key - the capacity for their interpretation to be accepted and become established as new reference points for legal discourse. The book identifies the practice of interpretation as a significant space for international lawmaking, using the key examples of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Appellate Body of the WTO to show how international institutions are able to shape and develop their constituent instruments by adding layers of interpretation, and moving the terms of discourse. The book applies developments in linguistics to the practice of international legal interpretation, building on semantic pragmatism to overcome traditional explanations of lawmaking and to offer a fresh account of how the practice of interpretation makes international law. It discusses the normative implications that arise from viewing interpretation in this light, and the implications that the importance of semantic changes has for understanding the development of international law. The book tests the potential of international law and its doctrine to respond to semantic change, and ultimately ponders how semantic authority can be justified democratically in a normative pluriverse.