This book focuses on tools and techniques for building regression models using real-world data and assessing their validity. A key theme throughout the book is that it makes sense to base inferences or conclusions only on valid models. Plots are shown to be an important tool for both building regression models and assessing their validity. We shall see that deciding what to plot and how each plot should be interpreted will be a major challenge. In order to overcome this challenge we shall need to understand the mathematical properties of the fitted regression models and associated diagnostic procedures. As such this will be an area of focus throughout the book. In particular, we shall carefully study the properties of resi- als in order to understand when patterns in residual plots provide direct information about model misspecification and when they do not. The regression output and plots that appear throughout the book have been gen- ated using R. The output from R that appears in this book has been edited in minor ways. On the book web site you will find the R code used in each example in the text.
This textbook considers statistical learning applications when interest centers on the conditional distribution of the response variable, given a set of predictors, and when it is important to characterize how the predictors are related to the response. This fully revised new edition includes important developments over the past 8 years. Consistent with modern data analytics, it emphasizes that a proper statistical learning data analysis derives from sound data collection, intelligent data management, appropriate statistical procedures, and an accessible interpretation of results. As in the first edition, a unifying theme is supervised learning that can be treated as a form of regression analysis. Key concepts and procedures are illustrated with real applications, especially those with practical implications. The material is written for upper undergraduate level and graduate students in the social and life sciences and for researchers who want to apply statistical learning procedures to scientific and policy problems. The author uses this book in a course on modern regression for the social, behavioral, and biological sciences. All of the analyses included are done in R with code routinely provided.
An Introduction to Statistical Learning
Author: Gareth James, Daniela Witten, Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
An Introduction to Statistical Learning provides an accessible overview of the field of statistical learning, an essential toolset for making sense of the vast and complex data sets that have emerged in fields ranging from biology to finance to marketing to astrophysics in the past twenty years. This book presents some of the most important modeling and prediction techniques, along with relevant applications. Topics include linear regression, classification, resampling methods, shrinkage approaches, tree-based methods, support vector machines, clustering, and more. Color graphics and real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods presented. Since the goal of this textbook is to facilitate the use of these statistical learning techniques by practitioners in science, industry, and other fields, each chapter contains a tutorial on implementing the analyses and methods presented in R, an extremely popular open source statistical software platform. Two of the authors co-wrote The Elements of Statistical Learning (Hastie, Tibshirani and Friedman, 2nd edition 2009), a popular reference book for statistics and machine learning researchers. An Introduction to Statistical Learning covers many of the same topics, but at a level accessible to a much broader audience. This book is targeted at statisticians and non-statisticians alike who wish to use cutting-edge statistical learning techniques to analyze their data. The text assumes only a previous course in linear regression and no knowledge of matrix algebra.
This is the first book on multivariate analysis to look at large data sets which describes the state of the art in analyzing such data. Material such as database management systems is included that has never appeared in statistics books before.
A Hands-On Way to Learning Data Analysis Part of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition. New to the Second Edition Reorganized material on interpreting linear models, which distinguishes the main applications of prediction and explanation and introduces elementary notions of causality Additional topics, including QR decomposition, splines, additive models, Lasso, multiple imputation, and false discovery rates Extensive use of the ggplot2 graphics package in addition to base graphics Like its widely praised, best-selling predecessor, this edition combines statistics and R to seamlessly give a coherent exposition of the practice of linear modeling. The text offers up-to-date insight on essential data analysis topics, from estimation, inference, and prediction to missing data, factorial models, and block designs. Numerous examples illustrate how to apply the different methods using R.
Statistics is the language of modern empirical social and behavioural science and the varieties of regression form the basis of this language. Statistical and computing advances have led to new and exciting regressions that have become the necessary tools for any researcher in these fields. In a way that is refreshingly engaging and readable, Wright and London describe the most useful of these techniques and provide step-by-step instructions, using the freeware R, to analyze datasets that can be located on the books' webpage: www.sagepub.co.uk/wrightandlondon. Techniques covered in this book include multilevel modeling, ANOVA and ANCOVA, path analysis, mediation and moderation, logistic regression (generalized linear models), generalized additive models, and robust methods. These are all tested out using a range of real research examples conducted by the authors in every chapter. Given the wide coverage of techniques, this book will be essential reading for any advanced undergraduate and graduate student (particularly in psychology) and for more experienced researchers wanting to learn how to apply some of the more recent statistical techniques to their datasets. The Authors are donating all royalties from the book to the American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders.
Collecting, analyzing, and extracting valuable information from a large amount of data requires easily accessible, robust, computational and analytical tools. Data Mining and Business Analytics with R utilizes the open source software R for the analysis, exploration, and simplification of large high-dimensional data sets. As a result, readers are provided with the needed guidance to model and interpret complicated data and become adept at building powerful models for prediction and classification. Highlighting both underlying concepts and practical computational skills, Data Mining and Business Analytics with R begins with coverage of standard linear regression and the importance of parsimony in statistical modeling. The book includes important topics such as penalty-based variable selection (LASSO); logistic regression; regression and classification trees; clustering; principal components and partial least squares; and the analysis of text and network data. In addition, the book presents: • A thorough discussion and extensive demonstration of the theory behind the most useful data mining tools • Illustrations of how to use the outlined concepts in real-world situations • Readily available additional data sets and related R code allowing readers to apply their own analyses to the discussed materials • Numerous exercises to help readers with computing skills and deepen their understanding of the material Data Mining and Business Analytics with R is an excellent graduate-level textbook for courses on data mining and business analytics. The book is also a valuable reference for practitioners who collect and analyze data in the fields of finance, operations management, marketing, and the information sciences.
Praise for the First Edition "The main strength of this book is that it provides a unified framework of graphical tools for data analysis, especially for univariate and low-dimensional multivariate data. In addition, it is clearly written in plain language and the inclusion of R code is particularly useful to assist readers’ understanding of the graphical techniques discussed in the book. ... It not only summarises graphical techniques, but it also serves as a practical reference for researchers and graduate students with an interest in data display." -Han Lin Shang,?Journal of Applied Statistics Graphics for Statistics and Data Analysis with R, Second Edition, presents the basic principles of graphical design and applies these principles to engaging examples using the graphics and lattice packages in R. It offers a wide array of modern graphical displays for data visualization and representation. Added in the second edition are coverage of the ggplot2 graphics package, material on human visualization and color rendering in R, on screen, and in print. Features Emphasizes the fundamentals of statistical graphics and best practice guidelines for producing and choosing among graphical displays in R Presents technical details on topics such as: the estimation of quantiles, nonparametric and parametric density estimation; diagnostic plots for the simple linear regression model; polynomial regression, splines, and locally weighted polynomial regression for producing a smooth curve; Trellis graphics for multivariate data Provides downloadable R code and data for figures at www.graphicsforstatistics.com Kevin J. Keen is a Professor of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Northern British Columbia (Prince George, Canada) and an Accredited Professional StatisticianTM by the Statistical Society of Canada and the American Statistical Association.
Bayesian and Frequentist Regression Methods provides a modern account of both Bayesian and frequentist methods of regression analysis. Many texts cover one or the other of the approaches, but this is the most comprehensive combination of Bayesian and frequentist methods that exists in one place. The two philosophical approaches to regression methodology are featured here as complementary techniques, with theory and data analysis providing supplementary components of the discussion. In particular, methods are illustrated using a variety of data sets. The majority of the data sets are drawn from biostatistics but the techniques are generalizable to a wide range of other disciplines.
Author: Ronald Christensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book examines log-linear models for contingency tables. Logistic re gression and logistic discrimination are treated as special cases and gener alized linear models (in the GLIM sense) are also discussed. The book is designed to fill a niche between basic introductory books such as Fienberg (1980) and Everitt (1977) and advanced books such as Bishop, Fienberg, and Holland (1975), Haberman (1974), and Santner and Duffy (1989). lt is primarily directed at advanced Masters degree students in Statistics but it can be used at both higher and lower levels. The primary theme of the book is using previous knowledge of analysis of variance and regression to motivate and explicate the use of log-linear models. Of course, both the analogies and the distinctions between the different methods must be kept in mind. The book is written at several levels. A basic introductory course would take material from Chapters I, II (deemphasizing Section II. 4), III, Sec tions IV. 1 through IV. 5 (eliminating the material on graphical models), Section IV. lü, Chapter VII, and Chapter IX. The advanced modeling ma terial at the end of Sections VII. 1, VII. 2, and possibly the material in Section IX. 2 should be deleted in a basic introductory course. For Mas ters degree students in Statistics, all the material in Chapters I through V, VII, IX, and X should be accessible. For an applied Ph. D.
Given the importance of linear models in statistical theory and experimental research, a good understanding of their fundamental principles and theory is essential. Supported by a large number of examples, Linear Model Methodology provides a strong foundation in the theory of linear models and explores the latest developments in data analysis. After presenting the historical evolution of certain methods and techniques used in linear models, the book reviews vector spaces and linear transformations and discusses the basic concepts and results of matrix algebra that are relevant to the study of linear models. Although mainly focused on classical linear models, the next several chapters also explore recent techniques for solving well-known problems that pertain to the distribution and independence of quadratic forms, the analysis of estimable linear functions and contrasts, and the general treatment of balanced random and mixed-effects models. The author then covers more contemporary topics in linear models, including the adequacy of Satterthwaite’s approximation, unbalanced fixed- and mixed-effects models, heteroscedastic linear models, response surface models with random effects, and linear multiresponse models. The final chapter introduces generalized linear models, which represent an extension of classical linear models. Linear models provide the groundwork for analysis of variance, regression analysis, response surface methodology, variance components analysis, and more, making it necessary to understand the theory behind linear modeling. Reflecting advances made in the last thirty years, this book offers a rigorous development of the theory underlying linear models.
All of Statistics
Author: Larry Wasserman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Taken literally, the title "All of Statistics" is an exaggeration. But in spirit, the title is apt, as the book does cover a much broader range of topics than a typical introductory book on mathematical statistics. This book is for people who want to learn probability and statistics quickly. It is suitable for graduate or advanced undergraduate students in computer science, mathematics, statistics, and related disciplines. The book includes modern topics like non-parametric curve estimation, bootstrapping, and classification, topics that are usually relegated to follow-up courses. The reader is presumed to know calculus and a little linear algebra. No previous knowledge of probability and statistics is required. Statistics, data mining, and machine learning are all concerned with collecting and analysing data.
A self-contained introduction to probability, exchangeability and Bayes’ rule provides a theoretical understanding of the applied material. Numerous examples with R-code that can be run "as-is" allow the reader to perform the data analyses themselves. The development of Monte Carlo and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in the context of data analysis examples provides motivation for these computational methods.
Bayesian Essentials with R
Author: Jean-Michel Marin, Christian P. Robert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This Bayesian modeling book provides a self-contained entry to computational Bayesian statistics. Focusing on the most standard statistical models and backed up by real datasets and an all-inclusive R (CRAN) package called bayess, the book provides an operational methodology for conducting Bayesian inference, rather than focusing on its theoretical and philosophical justifications. Readers are empowered to participate in the real-life data analysis situations depicted here from the beginning. Special attention is paid to the derivation of prior distributions in each case and specific reference solutions are given for each of the models. Similarly, computational details are worked out to lead the reader towards an effective programming of the methods given in the book. In particular, all R codes are discussed with enough detail to make them readily understandable and expandable. Bayesian Essentials with R can be used as a textbook at both undergraduate and graduate levels. It is particularly useful with students in professional degree programs and scientists to analyze data the Bayesian way. The text will also enhance introductory courses on Bayesian statistics. Prerequisites for the book are an undergraduate background in probability and statistics, if not in Bayesian statistics.
Linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) are an important class of statistical models that can be used to analyze correlated data. Such data are encountered in a variety of fields including biostatistics, public health, psychometrics, educational measurement, and sociology. This book aims to support a wide range of uses for the models by applied researchers in those and other fields by providing state-of-the-art descriptions of the implementation of LMMs in R. To help readers to get familiar with the features of the models and the details of carrying them out in R, the book includes a review of the most important theoretical concepts of the models. The presentation connects theory, software and applications. It is built up incrementally, starting with a summary of the concepts underlying simpler classes of linear models like the classical regression model, and carrying them forward to LMMs. A similar step-by-step approach is used to describe the R tools for LMMs. All the classes of linear models presented in the book are illustrated using real-life data. The book also introduces several novel R tools for LMMs, including new class of variance-covariance structure for random-effects, methods for influence diagnostics and for power calculations. They are included into an R package that should assist the readers in applying these and other methods presented in this text.